Wednesday, April 21, 2010

The last British Effort for United India, 1946

Amery's (The Secretary of State for India) Proposal ;
The talk between Gandhi and Jinnah regarding separation of India was a complete breakdown. After the failure of the talks Lord Wavell wanted His Majesty's Government to intervene to solve the problem of India. Moreove, Lord Wavell decided to hold a conference of Governors in Aug 1944. During the conference, the political situation of India was taken up. The issues regarding elections to be held at the center and in the provinces were also discussed. He had another small conference with the principal Indian Leaders, including Gandhiji and Jinnah, leaders of the Sikhs, depressed classes, Non-Congress hindus, Non-League Muslims and labour. The question of the composition of the traditional Govt. was discussed. On the oher hand Amery's proposal was to set up a conference in india, with the National Defence Council  as its nucleus which will solve the administrative problems in the country.
The Viceroy discussed matters in the small conference regarding the period after the settlement of the new transitional Govt. The viceroy would encourage it to prepare and communicate to His majesty's govt. proposals for the establishment of the constitution and treaty-making body.But while communicating his plan to the secretary of state, the viceroy admitted that there were obvious difficulties and risks. In addition to that, the secretary of state also identified the problems underlying the viceroy's proposals. He saw in them inherent practical difficulties . According to him, a prior agreement between the political parties with regard to the constitutional future, there was bound to be such tension within the Executive Council.
During this time, Amery's proposals of an alternative plan came to the forefront. According to him, the viceroy might, set up a conference of less unbalanced and incompatible elements in Indian polity.This should be set up with the purpose of discussing the basis of a future constitution of India.the National Defence Council would be the nucleus of the conference which already included the representative of the princes.This body could be reinforced by the premiers of provinces, elder statesmen, representative of the depressed classes and labour, and representative of the fighting services, including those of the Indian states. Moreover, a small committees might also be selected from within it to concentrate on planning.The Congress and the League would be represented on the elected body.