Sindhia family, Maratha ruling family of Gwalior, which for a time in the 18th century dominated the politics of northern India. The dynasty was founded by Ranoji Sindhia, who in 1726 was put in charge of the Malwa region by the peshwa (chief minister of the Maratha state). By his death in 1750, Ranoji had established his capital at Ujjain; only later was the Sindhia capital moved to the rock fortress of Gwalior.
Probably the greatest of Ranoji’s successors was Sindhia Mahadaji (reigned 1761–94), who created a north Indian empire virtually independent of the peshwa. He emerged from war with the British East India Company (1775–82) as the recognized ruler of northwest India. With the aid of French officers, he defeated the rajputs, took the Mughal emperor Shah ʿAlām under his protection, and finally won control of the peshwa by defeating the Maratha Holkar, the peshwa’s chief general, in 1793. His grandnephew, Daulat Rao, however, suffered serious reverses. He came into conflict with the British in 1803. After being defeated in four battles by Gen. Gerard Lake, he was obliged to disband his French-trained army and sign a treaty; he gave up control of Delhi but retained Rajputana until 1817. The Sindhia became clients of the British in 1818 and survived as a princely house until 1947.