Early movements against the British since eighteenth century
Two Confederacies ;
Ramesh Chandra Majumdar in his book 'History of Freedom Struggle' wrote ' the earliest instance of a plan of concerted action to drive out the British goes back to the year 1778 or 1779 A.D. when the English were involved in a war with the Marathas and the French in India. On this occasion Hyder Ali of Mysore, almost all the Maratha chiefs, and the Nizam organised a grand confederacy for making a simultaneous attack against the British from their respective headquarters. It was an ingenious plan and there was every chance of its being successful. Unfortunately, the superior Statesmanship of Hastings ensured its failure by drawing away the Nizam from this alliance.
Towards the close of eighteenth century, about A.D. 1795 a similar attempt of understanding was made between Zaman Shah of Kabul, Tipu Sultan, Sindhia, Asaf-ud-Daulah , Nawab of Avadh, a refugee Prince from Delhi, and Ghulam Muhammad, the defeated Ruhela Chief. The details of this conspiracy are not known.
In both the occasion a part of U.P., eastern part, was involved.