The last 30 years of Mozambique's history have political developments elsewhere in the 20th. century. Following the April1974 coup, initiated by a leftist group, in Lisbon, Portuguese colonisation collapsed. in Mozambique, the military decision to withdraw occurred within the context of a decade of armed anti-colonial struggle, initially led by American educated Eduardo Mondlane, who was assassinated in 1969.When independence was proclaimed in 1975, the leadersof FRELIMO"S military campaign rapidly established a one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc and outlawedrival political activity. FRELIMO eliminatedpolitical pluralism, religious educational institution, and the role of traditional authorities.
The new Govt. under president Samora Machel, gave shelter and support to south African
( African National Congress) and Zimbabwean(Zimbabwean African National Unity) liberation movements while the Govt. of first Rhodesia and later South Africa( at that time still operating the Apartheid laws) fostered and financed an armed rebel movement in cintral Mozambique called the Mozambican national Resistance (RENAMO). Hence, Civil war, sabotage from the neighbouring states , and economic collapse charterised the first decade of Mozambique independence. Also marking this period wee the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals , weak infrastructure , nationalisation, and economic management. During the civil war urban people were cut off from the effective control of the capital. An estimated 1 million Mozambicans were perished during the civil war, 1.7 million took shelter in neighbouring states, andseveral million more were internally displaced.
In the third party congress in 1983 of FRELIMO the President Samora Machel agreed that Govt. failed to implement the requisites of socialism and advocated for the economic liberisation. He died along with several advisers, in a suspecious plane crash.
His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms and peace talks with RENAMO. a new constitution was enacted in 1990provided for a multiparty political system.