In 1890s, British forces ended the slave trade in the protectorate
and established a coffe and tea
growing estate in the Shire ( a river) region, worked by the Africans.
By this time the Africans were being enlightened by Missionaries, knowingly or unknowingly and by the education of a section of people of Malawi in UK and USA. In 1915, during 1st.World War (1914-1918) , John Chilembwe, an African Preacher, staged a short bloody uprising against the British rule , which was easily suppressed. But that was always an inspiration to others for ending foreign domination and a growing European and US-educated African elite became increasingly vocal and politically active through the formation of association within the country.