1. Northern Sudan lying between the Egyptian border and Khartoum. It has two distinct parts, the desert and the Nile Valley.To the east there lies the Nubian Desert,and to the west, the Libyan Desert.There is virtually no rainfall in these desertsand in the Nubian desert there is no oesis also.In the west there are a few small watering holes, such as Bir, an Natrum. This portion of the Sudan is inadequate for human settlement.Only in a neighbourhood of Nile there are some healthy cities whose productivity depends on the annual flood.
Western Sudan is a generic term describing the regions known as Darfar and Kurdufan. The dominant feature of this region is the absence of surface water and the people and animal are to live with permanent wells. Hence the population is sparse and and unevenly distributed. The volcanic massif of Jabal Marrah exists in this region.The southern region of western Sudan has sand dumes in the rainy season is characterised by a rolling mantle of grass and has more reliable sources of water with its bore holes and hafri than does the north.Sudan's third distinct region is the central clay plains that stretch eastward from the Nuba mountains to the Ethiopian Frontier broken by the Ingessana hills. From the Khartoum in the north to the to the far reaches of reachesof southern Sudan.In the heart line of the cenral clay plains lies the Jazirah, the lan between the blue Nile and the white Nile
Extending 100 kms north of Kassala, the whole area watered by Qash is a rich grassland with bountiful cultivation . Trees and bushes provide grazing for the camels from the north , and the rich moist soil provides an abondance of food crops and and cotton.
Northward beyond the qash lie the more formidable RedSea Hills. Dry, bleak, and cooler than the surounding land, particularly in the heat of the Sudan summer, they stretch northward into Egypt, a jumbled mass of hills sprawls the coastal plains of the Red Sea. The coastal plain is dry and barren . it consists of rocks , and the seaward side thick with coral reefs.
The southern clay plains which is the extension of the northern clay plains extends all the way from northern Sudan to the mountains on th Sudan-Uganda frontier.