Saturday, September 25, 2010

Economic, Political and Social development of ancient India

In vedic age people had their livelihood in Agriculture and in Livestock. Use of iron was known to them. They had carriages driven by oxen  or horses. Ownership of land was gradually became practice among the Aryans. Due to this reason inequality between two sections of people broadened. Introduction of slave system also proved the inequality between two sections of people and gradually the society in vedic age was divided in classes.
The Aryan tribes lived in a society called 'Gana' of which the head waas called Ganapati. This 'ganapati' , at the beginning , was determined by election in a meeting place of all the persons of that section  people (Gana). The female members were not allowed to remain present.
At first these groups were small but gradually they became larger based on the capability of 'ganapati' who were called 'king' at that time.
In veedic religion, people believed in the existence of a number of gods.
The Vedas are the oldest written literature written in Sanskrit language.The vedic literatures not only gave rise to literary activities they also gave ideas of scientific knowledge. 
In Maurya period the share of the crops to be given to the king by the cultivators was, generally, 1/6th of the production which might vary on the basis of the natural phenomenon.
Cities came into being during Maurya period. it is known fro the report given by Maghasthinis that there were 570 forts in the capital.
Guilds, cooperatives etc of the artisans began to form during this time. Traders also formed their own organisations.
The total land of the country during Maurya period was divided into three categories.1. Private land, 2. community land,3. Land occuppied by the king. 'The society was notly the caretaker of the individual or community property but also it was the savier of the community.' Karl Marx.
At this period there were many wage labourers.