Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Aryan Civilisation

Indus valley civilisation, which spread and flourished in the north western part of the Indian subcontinent frrom c.3300 to 1300 BCE, was the first major civilisation in India. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE. This Bronze age civilisation collapsed before the end of he second millenium BCE and was followed by the iron age Vedic civilisation, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and which witnessedthe rise of major polities known as Mahajanapadas. In  one of these kingdoms, Magadha, Mahavira, Gautom Budha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCEand propagated their sramonicphilosophies.
Aryan Civilisation  .   
Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit  and Vedic term Arya meaning noble.
Since the mid 19th century it has been claimed thatb Aryans migrated into India , around 1800 Bc-1500BC, possibly waging war against the declining Harappan civilisation. The Rig-Veda describes warfare and struggle for control of territory, but whether this resulted from a migration or not is unclear.But archaeological and historical record can be interpreted to indicate a gradual migration around the end of the 2nd millenium BC of Indo-Aryan speakers to the east from the vicinity of Kurdistan. Neverthless, the evidence is weak. It is also possible to argue that the Indo-Aryan speaking cultures had much older roots in the area. At any rate , modern India is divided into two main language families , one Indo-European, its speakers possibly linguistic descendants of Aryans, and the other Dravidian, its speakers possibly linguistic descendants of the Harappans.
The Aryans came from Central Asia (modern day Russia).They entered the Indus valley through the fabled Khyber pass.The Aryans were nomads. They raised livestock, rode chariots, and loved to gamble.They had no sophisticated government. They grouped in clans, and were ruled by warrior chiefs called rajas.   Their history is one of constant war amongst themselves, between the various clans. The ryans created marvelous stories, stories they told or sang for centuries.