In the 1880s, the British arrived in the name of British South Africa Company under the leadership of Cecil Rhodes. In 1898, the name of the country was changed to Southern Rhodesia. Before that in 1888, Cecil Rhodes obtained a concession for mining rights from king Lobengula of the Ndebele peoples. Showing this concession that he obtained from King Lobengula, Rhodes persuaded the Govt. of United Kingdom to grant a Royal Charter to his BSAC over Matabeleland. Rhodes used this document in 1890 to justify sending the pioneer column, a group of white settlers protected by well armed British South Africa Police (BSAP) through Matabelelnad and into Sona territory to establish Fort Salisbury (Harare).In 1893-94, with the help of this new maxim guns the BSAP would go on to defeat the Ndebele in first Matabele War, a war which also resulted in the death of King Lobengula.Rhodes also sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo river and Lake Tanganyika, then known as Zambesia. In 1895 the BSAC adopted the name 'Rhodesia". In honor of Cecil Rhodes. In 1898 it became Southern Rhodesia. and Zambia be renamed as Northern Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia became a self governing British colony in Oct 1923, subsequent to a 1922 referendum In 1953 in the face of African opposition , Britain consolidated the two colonies of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (now in mawi), in the ill-fated Federation Of Rhodesia and Nysaland ,dominated by southern Rhodesis.Growing nationalism and general dissent persuaded Britain to dissolve the union in 1963, forming three colonies. But Ian Smith , with a minority Govt. made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the United Kingdom on nov 1965. Ian Smith signing the UDIwith his cabinet watching.