Sunday, May 16, 2010

Refugee Problems after Partition

The partition was a highly  controversial arrangements  and remains a cause of much tension on the sub-continent today. The British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma has not only been accused of rushing the process of through but also is alleged to have influenced  Radcliffe Line in India's favor since everyone agreed India would be more desirable country for most. Some critics allege that British haste led to the cruelties of the Partition. Because Independence was declared prior to the actual partition. There was a complete breakdown of the law and order ,many died in riots, massacre , or just from the hardship of their flight for safety.It was one of the largest population movements in recorded history. According to Richard Symonds ,
  "at the lowest estimate, half a million people perished and twelve million became homeless.
Delhi Punjabi Refugees:    
An estimated 25 million Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs (1947-present)crossed the newly drawn borders to reach their new homelands. These estimates are based on comparisons  census from 1941 and 1951 with adjustments for normal population growth in the areas of migration. In northern India undivided Punjab and NWFP - nearly 12 million were forced to move from as early as March 1947following the Rawalpindi violence.
Delhi received the largest number of refugees for a single city - population of Delhi grew rapidly in 1947    from under 1 million to a little less than 2 million between the period 1941-1951.
Refugees settled in India;
Many Sikhs, Hindus Punjabis settled in the Indian parts of Punjab and Delhi. Hindus migrating from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) settled across Eastern India and north-Eastern India , many ending up in close- by states like W.B., Assam, and Tripura. Some migrants were sent to the Andaman islands.
Refugees settled in Pakistan:
 In the aftermath of partition , a huge population exchange occurred between the two newly formed states. About 14.5 million people crossed the borders, including 7,226,000 Muslims came to Pakistanfrom India while 7,249,000 Hindus and Sikhs moved to India from Pakistan . About 5.5 million settled in PunjabPakistanand about 1,5 settled in Sindh.