Thursday, May 27, 2010

Iskandar Mirza, First President of Pakistan

Major-General Sahibzada Iskandar Ali Mirza (1899-1969) was the last Governor-General of the Dominion of Pakistan (6 Oct, 1955-23 March, 1956) and the first president of the Republic of Pakistan (23 March1956 to 27 Oct 1958).
Iskandar Ali Mirza was born at Murshidabad in Bengal on 13 Nov 1899, the eldest son of Sahibzada Sayyid Muhammad Fateh Ali Mirza (1875-1948)and his first wife, Dilshad Begum (1879-1925).Muhammad Fateh Ali Mirza was a prince of the ruling house of Murshibad and grand son of Nawab Mansur Ali Khan, the last Nawab of Bengal. Mirza was a descendant of Mir Zafar.He was Shi'a Muslim. He grew up in Bombay. After completing his early education at Elphinstone College, of the then University of Bombay. he was then educated at Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, becoming the first graduate from the Indian Sub-continent at the Academy, and was commissioned into the British Indian Army in 1920.
He was attached to the 2nd. Bengal Btn., and served in Khodad Khel operation in 1921, and at Waziristan in 1924. He was transferred to the 17th Poona  Hse (Queen Victoria's Own) later that year, and joined the Indian Political Service in 1926.He was assistant commissioner at Abbottabad in 1926-1928, Bannu 1928-1930, Nowshera 1930-1933, and tonk 19333, a deputy commissioner at hazara in 1933-1936 and at Mardan in 136-1938. he was a political agent of Khyber in 1938-1940, Dep. Comsnr. Peshawar & Political Agent to the Mohmands 1940, Political Agent Orissa States in 1945-46, Jt.defence Sec. of india 1946-1947 and Defence sec.  He served in  the Army for six years and had many responsible positions
Mirza became the defence secretary of the new Nation, Pakistan.In 1954, he was made Governor of East Pakistan and was appointed Minister of Interior and Frontier regions in Muhammad ali Bogra's cabinet.
In 1956, pakistan adopted its first cvonstitution . In 1958, Mirza decided that the 1956 constitution was contributing to Political instability, and on 7 Oct he declared martial law with a view to introducing a new constitution.He appointed Ayub Khan as the martial ;law administrator.
But Ayub Khan declared himself President on 27 Oct after a bloodless coup d'tat.
Mirza lived in exile in London until his death.