Sunday, May 16, 2010

Was Partition a mistake ?

Today, there have been a growing section of educated people who are found articulating that the partition of India was wrong and Pakistan was a spacious mistake. According to their perspective and supporting arguments, the partition of India was wrong and Pakistan was a spacious mistake. According to their perspactive and supporting arguments, the partition of India divided the Muslims of India ; there were more Muslims left in India than the number of Muslims living in Pakistan; the partition costed the lives of millions of innocent people ; that creation of Pakistan proved to be a failure with its further break-up in 25 years in the shape of creation of Bangladesh  and so on. the astonishing dilemma is that the majority of people who are found arguing these statements are intellectuals,writers, professionals and even politicians.
Now, the justification of the creation of Pakistan should be judged on the basis of the history of India since the Vedic times. In most of the cases the concept of India always includes the territory which is now known as Pakistan.
The Indian Muslim had been living with the people of other faith specially with Hindus, comfortably, from centuries until the British took over the control of India from the Mughol Emperor.The British ruled the Indian subcontinent for nearly 200 years , from 1757 to 1947.
The freedom struggle, declared or  undeclared, was actually started just after 1757 which took a certain shape during 1857when British Govt took away the administration of india directly in the hands of the Birtish Crown.
The British rulers launched political reforms in  allowing the formation of political parties in 1880s. The Indian National Congress, representing the overwhelming majority of Hindus, was created in 1885. 
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan  - a great Muslim scholar -told the Viceroy that the English system of open elections would not be suitable for India as contrary to Europe there was vast differences based on religion and castes in India. A system of open election would mean the majority community (Hindus) would override the interests of the minority specially the largest minority Muslims. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan demanded for separate representation of Muslims in the electorates to secure appropriate representation of Muslims in the the political system.
At the beginning of the British rule Britishers were in  favor of Hindus because they had snatched away ruling power from the hands of the Muslims. Similarly, Muslims were also behaving with the Britishers as their enemy. But when Lord Curzon wanted to divide Bengal, in 1905, they had to face strong opposition from the Bengalis, specially, Hindus.As a result, they wanted to divide the Bengali  by "divide and rule policy" and took the side of the Muslims. They instigated the Nawab of Dacca and others, who at the beginning was in favor of Swadeshi Movement, formed Muslim League in 1906 and took the side of "division of Bengal". At the beginning, their main demands were, 1. To support British Govt, 2. to get more privilege for the Muslims in all sorts of Govt. facilities including representation in the Legislative Assemblies.
In 1909, the British introduced constitutional reforms. The demand of Muslims of separate electorates was also accepted and in the process, in 1911 Bengal was partitioned on the basis of Muslim and Hindu majority areas.At that time, M.A.Jinnah was a prominent member of  Indian National Congress. 
In 1913, Jinnah was invited by the Lucknow based Muslim Leaguers, led by Wazir Hassan, to Join Muslim League, as the League leadership wanted to to establish good relationship with the Congress. Jinnah, on the other hand maintained dual membership in Congress and Muslim League till he dis-associated himself from the Congress in 1919 due to some political difference with M.K.Gandhi on the point of strategy.
Separate electorates and one-third representation in the Central Assembly, were the two main Muslim demands by the Muslim Leadership till in 1930, Md. Iqbal, demanded separate State for Muslims.but there were attempts from both the Congress and the Muslim League for cordial relationship till 1930.
in 1933, Choudhury Rahmat Ali, in a pamphlet "Now or never" coined the word Pakstan (later Pakistan) with its full significance.
In 1940, Lahore Congress of Muslim league, for the first time demanded a separate state for Muslims.