The Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile is the source of most of the water and fertile soil. It begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia at
12°02′09″N 037°15′53″E / 12.03583°N 37.26472°E / 12.03583; 37.26472 and flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.
The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along riverbanks. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea.\
This is a list of rivers in Egypt.
There is only one year-round river in Egypt, the Nile. It has no non-seasonal tributaries for its entire length in Egypt, though it has two further upstream, the Blue Nile and White Nile, which merge in central Sudan.
In the Nile Delta, the river splits into a number of distributaries and lesser channels. In ancient times there were seven distributaries, of which only two are extant today due to silting and flood relief schemes; from east to west, they were:
- the Pelusiac,
- the Tanitic,
- the Mendesian,
- the Phatnitic (extant; now the Damietta or Damyat),
- the Sebennytic,
- the Bolbitinic,
- the Canopic (extant; now the Rosetta or Rashid).
- Wadi Abbad (drainage area 7,000 km²)
- Wadi Shait (length 200 km, drainage area 10,000 km²)
- Wadi El-Kharit (length 260 km, drainage area 23,000 km²).
Current lakesSudan. Behind the High Dam of Aswan on the river Nile, contains river water.
salt lake in northern Egypt, between Alexandria and Al-Buhira (Beheira actually is named after it) Governorates.
North Sinai Governorate. It is said that it is named after King Baldwin I of Jerusalem of the First Crusade and that he was buried there.
Lake Moeris or Qaroun LakeBrackish water Lake. South River Nile Delta in Fayoum Governorate.
Wadi Elrayan LakesBrackish water Lake. In Fayoum Governorate
Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate
Egypt, at el-Wadi el-Gadid or New Valley Governorate.
Suez Canal, includes Greater Bitter Lake & Lesser Bitter Lakes and el-Temmsah Lake (The crocodile lake). In Ismailia Governorate.
Borolus Lake or Paralos lakeSalt water Lake in North shore of River Nile Delta, Western corner in Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate.
Wadi El Natrun LakesSalt alkaline water lakes (Contain Natron Salt) in Wadi Natron area near el-Qattara Depression in Matruh Governorate.
Salt lakes of SiwaIn New Valley Governorate, Siwa Oasis in Western Desert.