Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Era of Militant Nationalism

If the Battle of Plassey (1757) was the foundation of British rule in India then the Battle of Buxer (1764) will be the War of Independence.  But since 1757 to 1857
 ( the date of Great Revolution), there were several battles to oust the British from the soil of India culminating
into a revolt known as Great Revolution properly termed as first War of Independence by Karl Marx.
The indifferent attitude of the Government towards the demand of the Congress formed in 1885, there gradually developed during the last decade of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century an extremist
wing in the nationalist movement first made its appearance  in Maharashtra and Bengal under the leadership of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Aurobinda Ghosh respectively.
The factors promoting the growth of the extremist movement were;
1. growing economic discontent in Maharashtra among the middle-class, the growing ill-fed middle-class intellectuals, and the growing  un-employed. youth. The only positive respond response in the 19th century
from the Government was Indian Councils Act of 1892.
(The Indian Councils Act 1892 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that authorised an increase in the size of the various legislative councils in British India. Enacted due to the demand of the Indian National Congress to expand legislative council, the number of non-official members was increased both in central and provincial legislative councils. The universities, district board, municipalities, zamindars and chambers of commerce were empowered to recommend members to provincial councils. Thus was introduced the principle of representation. It also relaxed restrictions imposed by the Indian Councils Act 1861, thus allowing the councils to discuss each year's annual financial statement. They coud also put questions within certain limts to the government on the matter of public interest after giving six days' notice. Thus it prepared the base of Indian Democracy)
A section of the nationalist group gradually became disgusted with the Congress policy of "prayer and petition"
In Maharashtra 1879, Balwant Phadke (1845-1883), a Chiypavan Brahmin, tried to raise an army of the tribal people for destroying the British rule.
Tilak opposed the Age of Consent Bill of 1890, as he thought it is an encroachment in religious affairs by foreigners.In 1893, after the Hindu-Muslim riot in Bombay , Tilak stared anti-cow killing societyalso took aleading part in organizing inGanapati festival. he started movement for Sivaji's honour.
In the time of extreme