Thursday, January 19, 2012

Era of Militant Nationalism (contd-3)

Tilak's magnetic personality influenced Bipin Chandra Pal (1858-1932), Aurobindo Ghose, Brahmabandhab Upadhyay (1861-1907) andsome other writers began to preach a new type of aggressive nationalism. "Swaraj", he wrote , " is not colonial form of Govt. nor any form of Govt. It means the fulfilment of our national life". Bipin Chandra Pal defined the "new pariotism"as love for India with all her strength and weakness, beauty, and ugliness, glory and decadence.These leaders believed in complete from British control and not in self-Govt. within the British empire. Towards the end of 1901, Aurobindo Ghose was in servioce of the Maharaja of Baroda sent Jatindranath Bandyopadhyay ( who had been serving in the Gaikawad's army) to Bengal for setting up a secret revolutionary organization in this province. He set up a club on the the Upper Circular Road in north Calcutta where the members were taught boxing , cycling and lathi play, and lectures were delivered on Garibaldi, Mazzini and revolutionary movements in different countries of the West. Aurobondo's younger brother Barindra Kumar Ghose, Abinash Bhattacharya and the Marathi scholar-revolutionary Sakharam Ganesh Deuskarwere also associated with this club. In 1902, the famous Anushilan Samity was established in Calcutta by Satis Chanrdra Bose, with the welknown barrister Pramatha its president.The executive committee was reconstituted with P. Mitra as president, Chitta Ranjan Das and Aurobindo Ghose as its vice-president and Surendranath Tagore as its treasurer. The Saqmity gave training to its members in physical exercisw, asked them to take part in relief workduring natural calamities and also organized classes for them in history, economics, political science and religion. Swami Saradananda, a brother monk of Vivekananda took the classes in Gita, while sister Nivedita inspiredthe members by her fiery wrting and lectures.At the end of 1907, it had expandecd into 500 branches and 20,000 members.
The first series political actions were committed in Bengal during the year 1907-1908. In October, 1907, there were two plots to blow up the Lieutenant-Governor's train, and 6 Dec 1907, the train in  which Lieutenant governor Andrew Fraser was travelling was travelling wasactually ferailed by a bomb near Midnapore. On 23rd Dec Mr. Allen, formerly District magistrate of Dacca , was shot in the back.On 3rd april, 1908, a political dacoity was thrown into the office of the Mayor of Chandernagore who had recently prohibited illicit importation of arms into its territory. On 30th April, 1908, occurred thgde Muzaffarpur murderswhich may be regarded as an important landmark in the history of the revolutionary movement. A series of dacoity, murders of British officials were held during 1907 to 1914.