Wednesday, July 6, 2011

Resistance against the British

The resistance against the British was categorised in the following ways,
i) Political,
iii) Religious
The series of outbreaks due to the above may be regarded as the real precursors of the great Revolution in 1857.
Political Causes:
Malabar passed into the British hands by the treatise with the Tipu Sultan in 1792. But with a few exceptions, the Rajas of Malabar openly defied the British and were in a state of hostility for six years, keeping a considerable proportion of the Bombay army in constant hostile operations against them. Kerala Verma Raja of the Kottayam family, generally called the Pyche Raja, raised a formidable insurrectionand was joined by the Raja Kohote.A series of fights took place between their followers and the company's troops and at least on three occasions the latter suffers three reverses. The situation became so grave that the British authorities were forced to come to terms with the Pyche Raja who received very favourable terms.   
 The British occupation of Assam valley was followed by a seeies of insurrections with the avowed object of driving the English out of the country. In 1830, a Singpho chief surprised the British outpost at Sadiya, and his followers numbering about three thousand and provided with fire arms, spears and swords entrenched themselves in a stockade. The Sadiya insurrection of 1839assumed a still more formidable proportion: Col. White, the political agent, lost his life and eight others were killed or wounded. Similarly, the Tagi Raja, the chief of the Kapaschor Akas, killed in 1835 a number of British subjects , and stirred up commotionamong the hill tribes against the imposition of British rule. The Nagas also revolted in 1849.
       Bundelkhand passed into the hands of the British as a result of the Second Maratha War (1803-1805). But the new Government was defied from the very beginning  by the numerous chiefs entrenched in their forts nerly one hundred and fifty in number. The killadars of Ajoygarhand Kalanjor offered stuborn resistance to the British forces. Lakshman Dawa, the chieftain of Ajoygarh, when forced to surrender, requested the British authorities to blow him from the mouth of a gun.After he was taen captive to Calcutta, his mother, wife and children were killed by Lakshman father-in-law, who later killed himself, prefering death to to disgrace and dishonour.
A military adventurer in Bundelkhand, named Gopal Singh, who was deprived of his state by the British , scoured the country for four years.  
EMS Namboodiripad  in his book "A history of Indian Freedom Struggle" mentioned a detailed research work done by Rajayyan of Madurai, titled ' South Indian Rebellion - first war of Independence 1800-1801.This widespread movement extended all over South India covering not only the four states of Kerala, Tamilnadu, Andra and Karnataka but slao Maharashtra. In this connection he also mentioned that the socio-political condition of South India differs from that of Northern India,  There are mainly two reawsons for these,
1.This region was totally free from the Emperors domination of Northern India from Maurya to Mughal. Even if it was dominated for some time, liberation from such domination was speedily achieved.
2. Whenforeign conquerors, from Portuguese to British, were attempting to establish and consolidate their position in India, all egions of South India were free  from even nominal domination of the Delhi Emperor.