Thursday, July 21, 2011

Economic Exploitation by British.....(contd-1)

In one aspect, Eastern India comprising of Bengal,Bihar, Orissa and Assam is comparable with Southern India. Maritime transport of this region provided easy access to foreign trading companies who established trade relations into political power. But they are different in the system imposed by British Government regarding land revenue. In the former case they belonged to Permanent Settlement and in the latter case they belonged to Ryotwari System.
This eastern part of the region was, during the last 3/4 centuries,  always under the Mughal Empire and the Nawab of Bengal was one amongst the several subordinate local rulers. The British had at first established a trade relation with this region and got the Diwani (the right to collect tax and to carry on civil administration)of this region in order to ensure the security of the concessions. The Mughal Empire had succeeded in establishing a centralised administration and a land revenue system devised and implemented by Raja Todarmal, a minister in the court of Emperor Akbar. They had brought the feudal lords under the centralised administrations. It did the military force under the Empire.
In many regions in South India, there were intermediaries like Poligars who had considerable influence among the people . But such a system had become weak throughout the north in the later Mughal period itself. The Mughal administration had appointmented many elites as local agents in place of the traditional Jagirdars and Talukdars. It was on the basis of this historical fact that the new British rulers introduced Permanent Settlement in 1793 in Eastern India. under this system the Government did not directly deal with the cultivators. Instead, the Government dealt with intermediaries  known as Zamindars,  Taluqdars etc. who had to pay the Govternment the highest tax fixed in an auction.
In Ryotwari system   the actual cultivators and the Government are in direct contact with each other without intermediaries. The amount payable to the Government  was fixed from time to time.
Thus within 20 years of introduction of Permanent Settlement, the Zamindari properties as the Zamindars  themselves  emerged in these regions. Sometimes the number of intermediaries exceeded as many as half a dozen. The other end of this process were the actual possessors and cultivators of land, most of whom were getting pauperized. Even a section of the Zamindars   lost their lands due to their inability to pay the dues to the Governemnt. But no section of the former elite class in areas covered by Permanent Settlement lost everything as a result of the British rule as it happened in the case of Poligars and other feudal lords in South India where the Ryotwari system was introduced.It is on account of this that eastern India  submitted relatively peacefully to the British rule at a time when a widespread freedom struggle was going on in South India in 1800-1801.
Under this social and economic condition there were no widespread struggle in eastern India because of want of leaders of the common people as prevailant in the case of South India.