The British dominions during the century that had elapsed after the Battle of Plassey (1757) left a blazing trail of discontent and disaffection throughout India. But these were intensified to a considerable degree by many other consequences of the British rule which vitally affected the material and moral life of the people.
Economic exploitation ;
Economic exploitation primarily appeared in the form of bribes and taxation . Both Mir Jafar and Mis Kasim had to pay heavy amounts for their elevation to the throne, not only to the East India Company but alsoto their high officials , like governors and members of the Council, as personal gratitude. The Nawab in their turn made up their loss by taxation on the ordinary people of the country.
Trade and Industry;
The trade relation of Bengal with other parts of India and with different parts of the world by East India Company. The East India Company established monopoly trades on every article of trade, but even of the necessities of life, by shameless discrimination against the natives who were subjected to inland duties.This pernicious practice of underselling the the native in his own market, opened a scene of the most cruel oppression, and sowed the seeds of deepest disgust and bitterness to the rule of the merchants in the minds of the people.
Oppressive agrarian policy
The ruin of trade and industry, the greatest of the evils resulting from early British rule in Bengal, did not however, stand alone. The peasants, cultivators as well as the zamindars were equally ruined by the new policy adopted by the East India Company for the administration of the land revenue in Bengal.The permanent settlement ( 1793) introduced by the Lord Cornwallis. The permanent settlement not only ruined the old Zamindars, temporarily having some difficulties in paying the required amount of taxes, but also ruinous to the ryots.
Unlike Bengal, in Madras and Carnatak Zamindars were having big hoardings with self military protection broke out in revolt in !803-5 which of course was subdued by the British authorities.
Discontent due to Social and Religious causes
The social intercourse with the British soon grew to be another source of discontent among the Indians. Englishmen in general regarded in general regarded the the Indians as barbarians, and the Christian missionaries held in open contempt idolatrous practices of the Hindus.
The right of unrestricted entry of Christian missionaries to India was was conceded by the Charter of 1813. The missionaries, in their schools and religious tracts, poured forth venomous abuses against the Hindus, and this considerably estranged the relation between the two communities.
The bitter controversy over the so called Black Acts of 1849 strained the relations between the two communities.