Monday, July 11, 2011

Resistance against British (contd-4)

Primitive tribal instinct;
The Kol rising of 1831-2 illustrates the determined hostility of Primitive tribes against all attempts to
destroy the independence which they have enjoyed from time immemorial.The Hos of Singbhum , a Kolarian tribe, claimed that their chiefs had excercised independent powers for fifty two generations "The Raja of Singhbhum, or the Raja of Porahat as he was called, resisted all attempts of the British to penetrate into his country, his Hos  Subjects jealously guarded the frontiers and would not allow any stranger to pass through their territory ." He submitted in 1820.
But the usual agrarian discontent led to another rebellion in 1831.
British Period:-

British relations with Singhbhum date back to 1767 when a small British force marched against the Raja of Dhalbhum, or as he is called in the early records of Midnapore, the Raja of Ghatshila.The district of Midnapore which included Dhalbhum, had been ceded to the East India Company in 1760.In 1765 a force was sent against the neighboring Zamindars, but it could not subdue the Raja of Dhalbhum. After this expedition another force was sent under Jamboni to Ghatshila. The enemy had, however, retreated and they had destroyed the fort of Narsinghgarh earlier. However, the Raja was captured and sent to Midnapore in confinement. His nephew Jagannath Dhal was installed on the throne on a promise to pay an annual revenue of Rs.5,500/- to the British.
Jagannath Dhal fell into arrears of yearly revenue of Rs.5,500/- and there was an expedition against him. Jagannath Dhal attacked his successor, Baikuntha Dhal with a large force. Eventually in 1777 Jagannath dhal was reinstated in the estate on payment of revenue of Rs.2000/- for the first year, Rs.3000/- for second year and Rs.4000/- for third year and in 1800 the estate was permanently settled at an assessment of Rs.4267/-.
These expeditions against Dhalbhum brought the British into contact with the Raja of Porahat or as he was then called the Raja Singhbhum. The Raja wanted the company’s help to put his territory in order and agreed to pay them annual revenue. A few years later in 1773 it was found that the Raja of Porahat was encouraging the transport of salt through Singhbhum, which means loss of revenue to the company. Singhbhum was not directly under the company’s administrative control at that time. The Raja was forced to execute and undertaking not to harbour either Raiyats or merchants in future and guaranteed the peace of Haldipokhar. Subsequently in 1793,the two neighbourning chiefs, the Thakur of Kharsawan and Kunwar of Saraikella were compelled to give similar undertaking regarding the reception of fugitive rebels from the British territories.
In 1818,Ghanashyam Singhdeo of Porahat tendered allegiance to the British. His main object was to be recognized as the Lord Paramount over the chiefs of Kharsawan and Saraikella and also to obtain the assistance in reducing the Hos, whom he claimed as his subjects. The Hos resisted stiffly but their bows and arrows were of no match to the British equipment. In 1831, the Hos joined the rebellion (commonly called the KOL Rebellion) of the Mundas of Chhota Nagpur. The insurgents went on burning villages, killing the people mercilessly and plundering property until the army was deployed to put down the rebellion. The rebellion was finally quelled after much bloodshed.
The immediate result of these troubles and the Kol insurrections in Ranchi and other parts of Singhbhum was the establishment of the southwest frontier agency by revolution XIII of 1833. Dhalbhum, which had hitherto the include in Midnapore district, was Manbhum division. After the conquest of Kolahan in 1837,it was considered advisable to bring all the Ho Pirs under the direct management of the British Government. A new district was consequently constituted to be known as Singhbhum with Chaibasa as it’s Headquarter. In 1846,the district was enlarged by the transfer of Dhalbhum from Manbhum.When Act X of 1854 was passed; Singhbhum became a non-regulation district under the jurisdiction of the Lt.Governor of Bengal.
During British rule Singhbhum witnessed two distinct administrative types. Searaikella, Kharsawan, Porahat and Dhalbhum were administered by their rulers through their own agencies subject, however to the usual superintendence and control of the British Government. On the other hand, Kolhan administration had it’s distinctive features. Rules for the administrations of criminal justice were framed on 6th June 1837 to be administered by the political agents of the Governor General through his assistant and the Mankis and Mundas.In 1864,the criminal procedure code at XXV was enforced in Kolhan. The civil justice was administered by a set of rules known as Wilkinson Rules, framed in 1837.Besides these, the traditional Manki Munda system was retained ,allowing the Pir and village heads specific fiscal and police powers. The system of land survey and settlement was introduced in 1821.To prevent the problem of land being transferred from tribal from Dikus, often with connivance of Mankis & Mundas, special proposals were made in 1897,in the Chhota Nagpur Tenancy Act was passed defining the rules governing land transfer. The above measures helped consolidate British Rule in Singhbhum.ractically the whole of the present district Ranchi and overflowed