Sunday, October 24, 2010

Socio-Economic condition during the period of Sultanate

After defeating the Hindu Kings the Muslim invaders gradually occuppied the landed property of the then Kings and feudal lords and established their supremacy. But they were unable to change the landed system run during last centuries of the previous owners. The relations between the farmers and the fuedal lords mostly remained unaltered excepting some minor changes.The only thing they could impose, after gaining the landed property and influx of sufficient wealth, a strong military force with which they were able to rule over the country. Actually the landed property earned by them  belonged to the defeated landlord or fuedals of the past Indians.
This ime there were two types of landed systems- Ikta O Khalisa.The officials of the previous kings usuallu collected the taxes for tye Govt. The taxes imposed to the tenants or farmers did not have any appropriate measurement. It was fixed by a thumb rule and the tax were collected from the community not from any individual.The amount collected in this manner were used to maintain the Government officials and the soldiers by cash or kinds. There were some lands owned by the king which were cultivated with the help of slaves. Though that was very limited.Many Govt. owned lands were distributed amongst the officials who served the Govt by doing . This system was called 'Ikta' system. The small lands were called 'Ikta' and the owner of that land was called Iktadar or Oajdar,Some big amount of land also was donated to some who were known as Mukta. Each of this family had to supply soldiers in the army of the Sultan. Giasuddin Balban tried to take back the land from the owner who did not have man to send as a soldiers. This created a disturbance and Balban had to retreat. In this way land of the Iktadar was converted to individual Fuedal property.
There were another type of owner of the land known as Wakf, donated for religious purposes.