Saturday, October 2, 2010

Growth of Feudalistic relations

During Kushan and Gupta age agricultural system had developed enormously. Gradually the wetlands were converted to agricultural one. Manusanghita noted that those who could cultivate wetlands or made lands for cultivation by cutting woods would be given that land.
In Gupta age land records were being made and exchange of land against money was recorded.All the lands within the kingdom were occupied by either of the owners and no land was free. Donation of land to a particular person gradually increased. In ancient times, land was given to Govt officials for a temporary period but later on the time period was gradually increasing. Some donation of lands became a permanent feature. As a result the social relation within the village was changing.
Soviet geologists considered  the period of 7th to 18th century as  the age of Feudalistic society. Though there was difference of opinion.
The genesis of feudalism in the Indian society was marked from 330 AD. Feudalism refers to a special type of land tenure by which a system of private government based on land.Feudalism became prosperous with initiation of agricultural economy. Although feudalism was in vogue in the post Mauryan and in the Sattabahana Period, yet it was strengthened in the Pala-Pratihara period. After the decline of Harshavardhana, the trade in northern India was completely shattered. The decline of the trade resulted in the growth of landed economy. The economy in the Pala-Pratihara period was an agricultural period was an agricultural economy, when the feudalism was initiated in northern India.The trend of feudalism set in the Pala-Pratihara period was deteriorated in the Rajput period. Hence in the Rajput feudalsim the the condition of the common peoplewas miserable.
Pala-Pratihara-Rashtrakuta Feudalism :    The Pala-Pratihara-Rashtrakut feudalism was marked by the growth of landed intermediaries. These intermediaries were called feudal lords. They extended their landed area by resumption of the ownerless properties and by taking away agrarian rights of the farmeras. Serfdom was one of the significant features of the Pala-Pratihara-rashtrakuta feudalism and the freedom of the farmers was curbed.
Rajput Feudalism : Post Pratihara feudalism - The feudalism initiated in the Pala-Pratihara domain was strenthened in the post Pratihara or the Rajput period. The laws became strict and the tenant farmers even lost the security of their tenure in the land. the economic condition deteriorated.