There were many causes for Muslim conquest but the major reason was the spread of Islam. The Muslim dominated Kabul, the Punjab, and Sind before intruding in India,The wealth in India lured the Muslim rulers. Further the inter-rivalry between the kindoms in India paved the way for their entry in to India.
Early Muslim Invasion : The very first Muslim attack on India in Sind in the year 715 AD was by Arabs led by Mohammad Bin Qasim . They displayed Raja Dahir who ruled Sind from the Capital Deval ( near modern Karachi). Arabs even unsuccessfully tried to attack Malwa. After this invasion, which was invited to Sind, for a period of 300 years, Kings like raja Raja Bhoja and other Gurjara Kingsthwarted further Muslim attacks.
The next invasion was by Turk Sabuktagin. He had established himself in Khorasanand extended his kingdom to Kabul and Ghazni. In 986 AD he came into conflict with Raja Jaipal of Bathinda, In 991 AD Raja Jaipal allied with other Hindu King including Rajyapal, the Pathira king of Kannauj and Dhanga, the ruler of the distant Chandela kingdom but they two were defeated. Mahmud of Gazhni ; The elder son of Sabuktadin, Mahmud of Ghazni assumed the throne in 997AD. He was very conscious of the wealth he could achieve from further conquests into India.He was also areligious fanatic who aimed to spread Islam.Mahmud is said to have invaded India 17 times between 1001-1027 AD. king Jaipal and later his son Anandpal resisted Mahmud but were defeated. Between 1009 A and 1026 AD he invaded Kangra, Thaneshwar, Kanauj, Mathura, Gwalior, Kashmir and Punjab. In 1025 Mahmud invaded Somnath and looted its temple on the coast of Saurashtraor Tathiwar. Enormous treasure of the fotified temple were looted. His last invasion was i about 1022 AD . He died on 1030.
Muhammad Gazni and Muhammad Ghori
The next Important Muslim leader who had made his influence in Indian historyknown was Muhammad Ghori. He had invaded India 17 times.
Muhammad Ghori invaded Multan in about 1175-76 AD. In 1178 AD. He attempted to conquest Gujarat.He was strongly resisted by Bhimdev II who inflicted a crushing defeat to him. In 1191 AD Muhammad Ghori met Prthviraj Chauhanin the first battle of Tarain. Muhammad Ghori was severely wounded and outnumbered . he was defeated and left the battlefield . in the next year in 1192 AD both the armies met again at Tarain. This time Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan. In 1194AD he killed the ruler of Kannauj, Jaichand and also captured Benaras, Gwaliar, Gujarat, and .Ajmeer. he died in 1206 AD.
Slave Dynasty; Muhammad Ghori left Qutub -ud-din Aibek who was a slave from Turkistan in charge of the Indian affairs. Qutab-ud-din's general Muhammad Khilji successfully plundered and conquered the fort of Biharin 1193 AD. In about 1199-1202 AD, ha had laid the foundation of a new dynasty called the slave dynasty in 1206 AD.Iltutmisis daughter Razia Begum came to power in 1236 ADafter a brief power struggle.