Sunday, October 16, 2011

History of armed revolution against British Rule (contd-1)

(Reprint author's article of Saturday, June 25, 2011)

Movement Against Colonial Rule

To expand the colonial rule throughout India the British undertook several measures.1. to occupy the areas governed by the kings they enforced the annexation policy was a deadly weapon for conquest which increased the East India Company rule to the elevation of glory. The annexation policy was known as the Doctrine of Lapse. The Doctrine of Lapse was based on the forfeiture for the right rule in the non-appearance for a natural successor. By Doctrine of Lapse policy the province of Satara was annexed in 1848, the state of Sambhalpur in 1849, the state of Jhansi in 1853 and the state of Nagpur in 1954 was also annexed.
Additional system of annexation brought victory. The state of Punjab was annexed in 1849 after the Second Anglo Sikh war. The state of Burma also known as Pegu in 1852 was annexed. In 1853, the territory of Berar and in 1856, Oudh was also annexed By this way they occupied during 1848-1858 Satara, Nagpur, Jhancy, Sambalpur, and many other Kingdoms.After the death of the King of Tanjore and Nawab of Carnatak their titles as king and Nawab were abolished.As the loan of Hyderabad were unpaid, they captured the vast fertile lnd of cotton at Berar. From 1831 Mysore came under the rule of British. Though the King got his pension but his descendants were deprived of getting it. For misruleof the king of Audh, the map of the province of Audh had been wiped out from the map of India since 1856.
After the demolition of the Kingship, they closed their council of Ministers. As a result the members were deprived of their allownces, The kings also closed their set of soldiers. During the time of draught or flood there were loss of harvest . but the farmers didnot get any help from the British and hence the economic condition of the farmers became depressed. The British withdrawn the prestiguous position of the family members of the Kings for which they were also agrieved. For all these reasons the Indian people, specially the farmers under the leadership of the feudal lords began to revolt. The colonial policy for the tribes was not friendly, they had also joined the revolts. as a result several revolts took place in the whole India. This happened since the first half of nineteenth century. The British had to stop all these revolts during 1801-1805 and again from 1813 -1914 and 1831 by lathi charge and other forms of suppression.
In 1807 the whole of Delhi was in armed revolt. In 1814 armed Rajput farmers , in 1817-1818 farmers of Orissa, in 1826-1829 people of Pune were in revolt
Dr. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar rightly pointed out, "Of all the ruling princes of this period Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan were the most uncompromising opponents of the growth of British Political power in India, and they realised, more than others, the great peril which it meant to India."
Immediately after Tipu's death, Dhoondia Bagh, a Maratha by birth, and a military officer under Tipu, put himself at the head of the body of soldiers, mostly those disbanded from Tipu's army, and secured, without any fight, a number of important forts in Bednore  districts.After being secured in these forts, he tried for a "political confederacy" against the British. On Sep 10, 1800, Wellesly encountered Dhoondia's army, and though it was strongly posted defeated completely.
Even Thornton grudgingly admits that Dhoondia's "character and his attempt may be regarded as having gained something of dignity from the fact of the greatest general of modern times having takenthe field against him". He should rather be looked upon as typifying the spirit of hostility and resistance against the British that manifested itself after the conquest of Mysore.