Sunday, October 16, 2011

History of armed revolution against British Rule

Both Mir Jafar and Mir Qasim revolted against British rule though they have been put to the throne by the British. Mir Qasim became the Nawab of Bengal from the year 1760 till 1764. The British East India Company made him the Nawab of Bengal by replacing Mir Jafar, the father-in-law of Mir Qasim, who was also installd by by the British as a prize for his treachery in the Battle of Palashi ti defeat Sira-ud-daullah. But in search of Independence, Mir Jafar engaged himself with the Dutch East India Company to assert independence, the British finally defeating Mir Jafar and the dutch forces at Chinsura and  and made Mr. Qasimthe new Nawab.
After becoming the Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim was subject to pay a huge outstanding date of the former Nawab, Mir Jafar. In the pursuit of pleasing the British, Mir Qasim robbed all, seized lands by resuming vast amount of rent free lands after conducting a new survey of land and increased his revenue. He also transferred the the districts of Midnapore, Burdwan and Midnapore to British East India Company. He thought that he would be given full Independence. He undertook some strategic measures. 1. He collected ample fund to creat a military like British one, 2. Changed his capital from Murshidabad to Munger, and also changed the land revenue system and wanted to rationalise the tax structure of export and import. Mir Qasim formed a confederacy with Shuzaudddaula, the Nawab of Oudh, and Emperor Shah alam II but was defeated in he battle of Buxar on 22 Oct 1764.The success at Buxar established the claims of the English in a real sense than did the Battle of Palashi.              
There were several other serious uprisings against the British in the late 18th and 19th century. These were the Chuar rebellion in western Bengal ,the Paik rebellion in Orissa,Vishakapatnam revolts in Andhra,Khasi uprising in Assam.Bundela rebellion in central India,Polygar rebellion in South India, Indigo uprising in Bengal,Deccan riots ,Kol-Munda-Ho uprisings of Chotanagpur region.Tribal uprising under Birsa Munda and so on. All these movements showed clear anti-imperialist feelings and were directed against British oppression and exploitation. People from different castes, creeds and
The Chuar Rebellion of Midnapore and Bankura
The Chuar Rebellion of Midnapore and Bankura (1798-99) and the Laik Rebellion of Midnapore (1806-16)
In 1798-99, the massive rebellion that broke out in South-West Bankura and in North-West Midnapore, is known in history as the Chuar Rebellion. The British rulers and some Zemindars of Midnapore insultingly called the tribal and oppressed people of Midnapore, Bankura and Jangal Mahal as chuars. They depended for their existence on the wealth of the forests and cultivated with primitive methods. The collector of Midnapore in a letter to the Board of Revenue wrote: Those who were enjoying the right to this land since the antiquities, when they saw that their land was being taken away from them without any rhyme or reason, or thqt an excessive amount of revenue was sought to be extracted from them, then they took to arms in defence of their rights. This was no matte;'of su;Prise (Letter written on 25 May 1798).
During the Mughal period, law and order was maintained in the villages with the help of Paiks. When they were dismissed from service en masse, they too joined the chuar revolt.
In 1798, nearly 1500 rebels led by Durjan Singh, established their rule in 30 villages of Raipur Pargana. They attacked the headquarters of the Government's seat of power in this area and after a day long bloody battle, they were defeated. But in Salbani, the rebels were victorious and destroyed the army barracks. They burnt all Zemindary documents. A few Zemindars also joined the ranks of the rebels. Ultimately, by means of bloody repression and the usual policy of divide and rule, British were able to crush the Chuar Rebellion.
In 1806, the British confiscated the Irlnd of the Laiks of Bogir and at once the L~ik Re~lIion started. The Laiks were close to the chuars With the deep Sal forest of Gangani near Garbeta their headquarters and led by the indomitable Aehal Sinha, the Laiks revolted against the Raj. They adopted guerilla tactics.
Ultimately the British destroyed the entire forest by heavy artillery fire. Yet some Laiks, headed by Achal Sinha escaped and repeatedly harried the British. An act of treachery led to the arrest of Achal and he was promptly shot dead. In 1816 the rebellion was finally crushed and some 200 rebels were brutally executed
communities actively participated in these movements