Tuesday, August 16, 2011

Largest empires by land area and population

For context, note that the total land area of the Earth is just under 149 million km2.[1]

All empires at their greatest extent

Empire↓Land area (million km2)↓Contiguous[original research?]↓Era↓Population (million)↓% of world population↓
British Empire33.7No1922[2]458 (in 1938)[3]23.1% (458 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)[3]
Mongol Empire33.0Yes1270 or 1309[4]110.0 (in the 13th century)[5]25.6% (110.0 million out of 429 million[6] in the 13th century)
Russian Empire23.7Yes1866[7][8]176.4 in 19139.8% (176.4 million out of 1.791 billion[9] in 1913)
Spanish Empire20.0No1740-1790 approx[10]68.2 [11]12.3% (68.2 million out of 556 million[9] in the 17th century)
Qing Empire, China14.7Yes1790[7][8]432.2 in 1851.[12]36.6% (381.0 million out of 1.041 billion in 1820)[9]
Yuan Dynasty14.0Yes1310[8]59.8 in 1291.[13][14]17.1% (59.8 million out of 350 million in 1290)
Umayyad Caliphate13.0Yes720 or 750[15]62.0 (in the 8th century)[16]29.5% (62.0 million out of 210 million[17] in the 7th century AD)
Second French Colonial Empire13.0No1938[10]112.9 in 19385.1% (112.9 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)
Abbasid Caliphate11.1Yes750[8]20.0% (50.0 million out of 250 million in 850)[9]
Portuguese Empire10.4No1815[10]
Rashidun Caliphate9.0Yes654[8][18]19.1% (40.3 million out of 210 million in 7th century)
Empire of Brazil8.5Yes1880, similar to the Federative Republic of Brazil of today [10]
Achaemenid Empire, Persia8.0YesBC 480[19]49.4 (in the 5th century BC)[20]44.0% (49.4 million out of 112.4 million[21] in the 5th century BC/480 BC)[20]
Japanese Empire7.4No1942[10]134.8 in 19385.9% (134.8 million out of 2.295 billion[9] in 1938)
Han Empire, China6.5Yes100[22]74.0 in 2[13][23]26.0% (59.6 million out of 230 million[9] in 2 AD)
Ming Empire, China6.5Yes1450[7][8]110.0 in 1600.[24][25]28.8% (160.0 million out of 556.2 million in 1600)[9]
Roman Empire6.5Yes117[26]80.0 (in 2nd century AD)[27][28]35.9% (80.0 million out of 223 million[27] in the 2nd century AD)
Nazi Germany6.4Yes194275.4 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938
Göktürk Khaganate6.0Yes557[7][22]
Golden Horde Khanate6.0Yes1310[7][8]
Uyghur Khaganate5.5Yes800[7][8]
Tang Empire, China5.4Yes715[7][8]53.0 in 755[13][29]28.0% (70.0 million out of 250 million in 850 AD)[9]
Empire of Alexander5.2YesBC 323[7][30]
Ottoman Empire5.2Yes1683[7][8]7.1% (39.0 million out of 556 million[9] in the 17th century)
Fatimid Caliphate5.1Yes969[7][8]
Maurya Empire, India5.0YesBC 250[7]50.0 in the 2nd century BC33.3% (50.0 million out of 150 million in the 2nd century BC[31])
Northern Yuan Dynasty, Mongolia5.0Yes1550[8]
First Mexican Empire4.9Yes1822[citation needed]
Xin Dynasty, China4.7Yes10[22]
Tufan Tibet Empire4.6Yes800[7][8]
Timurid Empire4.6Yes1405[7][8]
Mughal Empire, India4.6Yes1690[7][8]175.0 in 170029.2% (175.0 million out of 600 million[32] in 1700)
Xiongnu Empire4.03YesBC 176[33]
Pala Empire, India4.0Yes85024.0% (60.0 million out of 250 million in 850)[9]
Hunnic Empire4.0Yes441[22]
Hepthalite Khanate White Huns, India4.0Yes490[22]
Eastern Turks Khanate4.0Yes624[22]
Afsharid Dynasty, Persia4.0Yes1747[citation needed]
Western Turks Khanate4.0Yes630[22]
Rouran Khaganate Juan-juan4.0Yes405[7][22]
Karkota Dynasty Kashmir, India4.0Yes750[7][8]
Seleucid Empire3.9YesBC 301[7][30]
Great Seljuq Empire3.9Yes1080[7][8]
Italian Empire3.8No1940[citation needed]51.9 in 19382.3% (51.9 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)
Kushan Empire, India3.8Yes200[22]19.0% (42.37 million out of 223 million in 140)[9]
Dutch Empire3.7No1940[citation needed]60.0 in 1940.3.5% (60.0 million out of 1.700 billion in 1907)
Chola Dynasty, India3.6Yes1050[34][35]
Khwarazmian Empire3.6Yes1218[8]
Sassanid Empire, Persia3.5Yes550[7]78.0 (in the 7th century AD)37.1% (78.0 million out of 210 million[17] in the 7th century AD)
Gupta Empire, India3.5Yes400[7]26.36% (58.0 million out of 220 million in 400 AD) [3]
Chagatai Khanate3.5Yes1310 or 1350[7][8]
Safavid Dynasty, Persia3.5Yes1512[citation needed]
German Colonial Empire3.5No1914[citation needed]64.9 in 19143.7% (64.9 million out of 1.753 billion in 1910)
Western Jin Dynasty, China3.5Yes300[22]48.0 in 1195.[13][36]
Shaybanid Uzbek Dynasty3.5Yes1510[8]
Byzantine Empire3.5Yes555[22]
Song Dynasty Northern Song, China3.5Yes1100[7][8]123.0 in 1103[13][37]22.0% (59.0 million out of 268 million in 1000)[9]
Ghaznavid Empire, Persia3.4Yes1029[7][8]
First French Colonial Empire3.4No1670[8]
Almoravid Caliphate3.3Yes1147[8]
Tughlaq Dynasty, India3.2Yes1320[8]18.91% (70.0 million out of 370 million in 1330)[9]
Ghurids Sultanate, Persia3.2Yes1200[8]
Sui Dynasty, China3.1Yes610[8]53.0 in 606[13][38]
Khazar Khanate3.0Yes850[7]
Kalmar Union3.0Yes1397[citation needed]
Kievan Rus'3.0Yes1050[7][8]
Kara-Khanid Khanate3.0Yes1025[8]
Qajar Dynasty, Persia3.0Yes1796[citation needed]
Danish colonial empire3.0No1800[citation needed]
Grand Duchy of Moscow3.0Yes1505[citation needed]
Samanid Dynasty, Persia2.85Yes928[7][8]
Median Empire2.8YesBC 585[7][30]
Qin Dynasty, China2.8YesBC 206[22]
Parthian Empire, Persia2.8Yes1[7][30]
Eastern Jin Dynasty, China2.8Yes347[22]
Liu Song Dynasty, China2.8Yes420[22]
Khilji Dynasty, India2.7Yes1312 or 1320[7][8]
Ayyubid Caliphate2.7Yes1190[7]
Majapahit Empire2.7No1389[22]
Liao Dynasty, China2.6Yes947[7][8]
Indo-Greek Yavana Kingdom,India2.5YesBC 150[22]
Bactrian Empire2.5YesBC 184[22]
Later Zhao Dynasty, China2.5Yes329[22]
Maratha Empire, India2.5Yes1760[7]
Belgian Empire2.5No1914[citation needed]
Kara-Khitan Khanate Western Liao2.5Yes1210[7]
Jin Dynasty Jurchen, China2.3Yes1126[7][8]
Southern Qi Dynasty, China2.3Yes502[22]
Southern Song Dynasty, China2.1Yes1127[8]73.0 in 1193.[13][39]
Bahriyya Mamluks, Egypt2.1Yes1300[8]
Burjiyya Mamluks, Egypt2.1Yes1400[7]
First French Empire2.1Yes1813[8]
Wei Dynasty, China2.0Yes263[22]
Earlier Zhao Dynasty, China2.0Yes316[22]64 in 156[13][40]
Former Qin Dynasty, China2.0Yes376[22]
Western Roman Empire2.0Yes395[22]
Northern Wei Dynasty, China2.0Yes450[22]
Saffarid Dynasty, Persia2.0Yes900[citation needed]
Almohad Caliphate2.0Yes1200[7]
Satavahana Dynasty Salivahana, India2.0Yes90 AD[22]
Inca Empire2.0Yes1527[7][8]
Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty, India1.8Yes860[8]
Sibir Khanate1.8Yes1520[8]
Rashtrakuta Dynasty, India1.7Yes805[citation needed]
Buyid Sultanate, Persia1.6Yes980[7][8]
Mamluk Sultanate, India1.6Yes1228[8]
Indo-Parthians Pahalvas Kingdom, India1.5Yes50[22]
Wu Dynasty, China1.5Yes221[22]
Northern Zhou Dynasty, China1.5Yes577[22]
Nanda Dynasty, India1.5YesBC 350 or 321[22][41]
Indo-Scythians Shaka Kingdom, India1.5YesBC 100[30]
Tulunids Emirate1.5Yes900[22]
Idrisid Dynasty, Morocco1.5Yes828[7]
Suri Dynasty, India1.5Yes1545 AD[7][8]
Neo-Assyrian Empire1.4YesBC 670[7][30]
Songhai Empire1.4Yes1500[42]
Harsha Empire Pusyabhutis, India1.35Yes625 or 648[7][8]
Liang Dynasty, China1.3Yes502 or 549[7][22]
Western Wei Dynasty, China1.3Yes557[22]
Later Liang Dynasty, China1.3Yes923[8]
Later Tang Dynasty, China1.3Yes923[8]
Mali Empire1.29Yes1312[43]10.0% (45.0 million out of 450 million[44] in the mid-15th century)
Shang Dynasty, China1.25YesBC 1122[7][30]
Western Zhou Dynasty, China1.25YesBC 1122[30]
Aksumite Empire1.25Yes350[7]
Carolingian Dynasty, Francia1.2Yes814[7][8]
Polish-Lithuanian Empire1.2Yes1650[7][8]
Srivijaya Empire1.2Yes1200[7]
Sunga Empire, India1.2YesBC 150[7]
Kingdom of Kush Meroë 25th Dynasty, Sudan1.2YesBC 700[7]
Thai Empire Siam Empire1.12Yes1782[citation needed]
Chalukya Dynasty, India1.1Yes636[citation needed]
Swedish Empire1.1No1658[citation needed]
Lodhi Dynasty, India1.1Yes1517[citation needed]
18th Dynasty, Egypt1.0YesBC 1450[30]
New Kingdom in Egypt1.0YesBC 1300[7][30]
Ptolemaic Dynasty, Egypt1.0NoBC 301[30]
Eastern Wei Dynasty, China1.0Yes550[22]
Northern Qi Dynasty, China1.0Yes550[22]
Tahirid Dynasty, Persia1.0Yes800[8]
Kalachuri Dynasty, India1.0Yes1050[7][8]
Holy Roman Empire1.0Yes1050[8]
Western Xia Dynasty Tangut, China1.0Yes1100[7]
Western Chalukya Empire, India1.0Yes1121[citation needed]
Khmer Empire1.0Yes1290[7][8]
Avars Empire1.0Yes600[22]
Kanem Empire, Chad1.0Yes1200[8]
Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty, India0.9YesBC 10[30]
Konbaung Dynasty, Burma0.9Yes1800 AD[citation needed]
Volga Bulgars Khanate0.9Yes1100[7][8]
Akkadian Empire0.8YesBC 2250[30]
Later Jin Dynasty, China0.8Yes936[8]
Ghana Empire0.8Yes1067[22]
Pagan Kingdom Bagan, Burma0.8Yes1200[8]
Western Satraps Dynasty, India0.8Yes100[22]
Himyarite Kingdom, Yemen0.8Yes400 AD[30]
Balhae Kingdom, Korea0.8Yes830[7]
Khanate of Kazan0.7Yes1540[8]
Merovingian Dynasty, Francia0.7Yes558[8]
Bulgarian Empire0.7Yes900[citation needed]
Shu Dynasty, China0.7Yes221[22]
Yadava Gauli Kingdom, India0.7Yes1250[8]
Paramara Dynasty, India0.7Yes1050[22]
Kingdom of Dali Hou li,China0.7Yes1200[citation needed]
Vijayanagara Tuluvas Empire, India0.7Yes1529[citation needed]5.0% (25.0 million out of 500 million[9] in the 16th century)
Kingdom of Nanzhao, China0.7Yes830[8]
Austro-Hungarian Empire0.676615Yes[citation needed]52.8 in 19142.9% (51.3 million out of 1.753 billion in 1910)
15th Dynasty Hyksos, Egypt0.65YesBC 1650[30]
26th Dynasty, Egypt0.65YesBC 550[30]
Vakataka Kingdom, India0.65Yes450 AD[30]
Visigoths Kingdom0.6Yes580[22]
Caliphate of Córdoba0.6Yes1000[8]
Rai Dynasty Chachas Sindh,India0.6Yes675 AD[22]
Maukhari Kannauj Dynasty, India0.6Yes600 AD[8]
Bahmani Sultanate, India0.6Yes1470 AD[8]
Nizams Dynasty, India0.6Yes1740 AD[citation needed]
Sikh Empire, India0.5609Yes1845[citation needed]
Middle Kingdom, Egypt0.5YesBC 1850[30]
Lydian Empire0.5YesBC 585[30]
Neo-Babylonian Empire0.5YesBC 562[30]
Kosala Dynasty, India0.5YesBC 543[22]
Shishunaga Dynasty,India0.5YesBC 510[22]
Chu Dynasty, China0.5YesBC 350[22]
Pandyan Dynasty, India0.5Yes1251[citation needed]
Later Han Dynasty, China0.5Yes947[8]
Kangju Empire Transoxiana0.5YesBC 100[22]
Ostrogothic Kingdom0.5Yes510 AD[8]
Goguryeo Kingdom, Korea0.45Yes476[30]
Xia Dynasty, China based on the hypothesis that prehistorical cities of Erlitou culture were once united0.45YesBC 1800[30]
New Kingdom, Hittite0.45YesBC 1250 or 1220[30]
Crimean Khanate0.4Yes1500[8]
Armenian Empire0.4YesBC 83[22]
Old Kingdom, Egypt0.4YesBC 2400[30]
Middle Kingdom, Assyria under Tiglath-Pileser I0.4YesBC 1080[30]
Latin Empire0.35Yes1204[22]
Harappan Empire, India0.3YesBC 1800[41]
Mitanni Empire0.3YesBC 1450[30]
Carthaginian Empire0.3NoBC 220[30]
1st Dynasty, Babylon0.25YesBC 1690[30]
Serbian Empire0.25Yes1350[citation needed]
Aztec Empire0.22Yes1520[8]
Middle Elamite0.2YesBC 1160[30]
2nd Dynasty, Isin0.2YesBC 1130[30]
Urartu Empire0.2YesBC 800[30]
Phrygian Dynasty0.2YesBC 750[30]
Old Kingdom, Assyria0.15YesBC 1730[30]
Eastern Zhou Dynasty, China0.15YesBC 770