Monday, August 15, 2011

Anti-British Outbreak after 1858

1.Wahhabi Movement;
The Wahhabi Movement was a part of the Indian Freedom Struggle as it offered a serious threat to British supremacy in India in the 19th century.The movement was led by Syed Ahmed Barelvi, who was greatly influenced by the teaching of Abdul Wahab of Arabia and the preaching of Delhi saint Shah Wallullah. The Wahhabi Movement essentially condemned all changes and innovations to Islam.It was a revivalist movement whih held that the return to the true spirit of Islam was the only way to get rid of the socio political oppression.  
To materialize the desired objectives of the Wahabi movement, Syed Ahmed looked for the right leader, a proper organization, a safe territory, whereform to launch his Jihad.Syed Ahmed was declared as the desired leader or Imam. He built up a country wide organization worked under four spiritual associate trustees called Khallifas. The mission of the Wahabis were mainly concentrated in the region of Hyderabad, Chennai, Bengal, Uttarpradesh, and Mumbai.The Wahabis played diplomatically with the solemn aim to establish their supremacy With this intent in mind, the Wahabis first launched a Jihad against the Sikh kingdom in Punjab.In 1830, they occupied Peshawar. But in the following year Syed Ahmed lost his life in the fighting against the Sikh.After the overthrow of the Sikh ruler and the incorporation of Punjab into the domain of the East India Company, the sole target of the Wahabis' attack was  the British domain in India.Wilayat Ali and Enayat Ali, the two brothers of Patna had come into contact of Syed Ahmed and became the disciples. After the death of Syed Ahmed in 1831, they kept on working alternatively in faraway places like Satana in the west and frontier Rajmahal, Malda, and Chttagong in East Bengal and carried on their revolutionary activities to end Bitish domination in India. They were the pioneers in perfecting the system of despatch of men and money from India which continued with wonderful efficiency and fool-proof  accuracy for a long time. In 1847, the Wahabis started full preparation for an absolute war against the British rule in India from their base camp in Sitana.Wilayat Ali became the undisputed leader.           
The British took up brutal measures an the period between 1863-1865, witnessed a series of trials by which all the principal leaders of the Wahabi Movement were arrested. The Ambala trial of 1864 and Patna trial of 1865 were closely interlinked.Yahaya Ali along with Mohammed Jafar and Mohammaed Shaft were sentenced to death in the Ambala trial and the others were sentenced to expatraion for life. The death sentnces were later converted to life-imprisonment.The death sentence of Ahmadullah was awarded on 27th Feb. 1865. the most respected member Ibrahim Mandal of Islampur was convicted in Rajmahal trial (1870) and awarded life imprsonment but was releeased by Lord Lyton in 1878.