The building of monasteries and lateral of Gothic cathedrals expressed the spiritual preoccupaions of the pople and it was not until the Renaissance (which emaniated from the wealthy and vigorous Italian city states) that medieval ideas about life and the Universe began to be questioned,, The rebirth of classical learning sparked off scientific and artistc revolution that transformed Europe. Protestantism broke the religious supremacyof the church of Rome.New lands were discovered and European ideas were carried to many parts of the world. The 19th century saw a great industrial revolution, brought
about by the advance of science and technology and by an unprecedened growth in population which haunted them to try to find new places for rehabilitation and wealeth.
Meanwhile shipbuilding and navigation in Europe had considerably advanced and more extended voyages were possible Portuguese took the lead in this respect. From A.D. 1487 to 1650 they found out about the whole world to extend their Empire as colony.