Saturday, April 9, 2011

Robert Clive (contd-2)

Second Journey to India (1755-1760)
He left Madras for home early in the year 1753 and came back again in July 1755 to act as deputy Governor of  Fort St. David, a small settlement south of Madras.During his journey he lost worth 33,000 pound enroute from England.
Clive was now promoted to Leiutenant Colonel in the King's army took part in the capture of the fortress of Gheriah, a strong hold of Maratha Admiral Tuloji Angre.Clive won the battle with few losses. It is noted that Cliverefused to takepart of the treasure divided among the victorious forces as was custom at that time.
The fall and Recapture of Calcutta.
Following this action Clive headed to his post at Fort St. David and it was there he received news of twin disasters for the English . Early in 1756, Siraj-Ud Daulah succeeded his frand father Alivardi Khan as Nawab of Bengal. In June Clivee received news that the new Nawab had attacked the English at Kassimbazar and shortly afterwards he had taken the Fort at Calcutta.The losses to the  East India Company because of the fall of Calcutta were estimated by investors at 2,000,000 pound.
Approximately a month later, on February 3, 1757, Clive encountered the army of the Nawab itself.Clive's force broke through the besieging camp and arrived safely at Fort William. During the assault, around one tenth of the British attackers were killed or wounded.While technically not a victory in military terms, the sudden British assault intimidated the Nawab so much that he sought to make terms with clive and surrendered controlof Calcuttaon 9 February by promising to compensate the East India Company for damages suffered and to restore privileges.
While capturing French settlement near Pondichery the combined forces prizes to the value of 140,000 pound, Clive made a gentleman's agreement in which it was agreed to give the office of viceroy of Bengal, Bihar and Orissato Mis Jafar, who was to pay a million sterling to the Company for its losses in Calcutta and the cost of its troops , half a million to the British inhabitants of Calcutta, 200,000 pounds to the native inhabitants, and 70,000 to its Armenian merchants.
In 1760, the 35-year old Clive returned to England with a fortune of at least 300,000 pounds and the quit rent of 27,000 pounds a year.
Third journey to India 
On 3 May 1765 Clive landed at Calcutta to learn that Mir Jafar had died, lleaving him personally 70,000 pounds. Mir Jafar was succeeded by his son Kasim Ali, though not before the Govt. had been further demoralised by taking 100,000 pound as a gift from the new Nwab
The Clive left India for the last time in February 1767.