Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Robert Clive (contd-1)

Clive was expelled from three schools, including Market Drayton Grammer School and Merchant Taylors School in London. Despite his lack of scholarship, he eventually developed a distinctive writing style, and a speech in the House of Commons was described by William Pitt as the most eloquent he had ever heard.
First Journey to India (1744-1753)
At the age of eighteen, Clive was sent out to Madras as a 'factor' or 'writer' in the civil service of the East India Company. But his ship was held by Brazil for nine months while repairs were completed. At this time East India Company had a small settlement at St. George near the village of Madraspatnam.
    On 4 Sept, 1746, Madras was attacked by French forces led by La Bourdonnais as part of the war of the Austrian Succession. After several days of bombardment the British forces surrendered and the French entered the city. 
Roman Britain
Battle of Medway
Norman Conquest
Battle of Hastings
100 Years War
Battle of Sluys
Battle of Creçy
Battle of Poitiers
Battle of Agincourt
The Spanish War
The Spanish Armada
Spanish Succession
Battle of Blenheim
Battle of Ramillies
Battle of Oudenarde
Battle of Malplaquet
King George's War (Austrian Succession)
Battle of Dettingen
Battle of Fontenoy
Battle of Roucoux
Battle of Lauffeldt
Jacobite Rebellion
Battle of Prestonpans
Battle of Falkirk
Battle of Culloden
Seven Years War
Battle of Minden
Battle of Emsdorf
Battle of Warburg
Batlle of Kloster Kamp
Battle of Vellinghausen
Battle of Wilhelmstahl
French & Indian War
Braddock Monongahela
Battle Ticonderoga 1758
Battle of Louisburg
Battle of Quebec 1759
American Revolutionary War
Battle of Concord and Lexington
Battle of Bunker Hill
Battle of Quebec 1775
Battle of Long Island
Battle of Harlem Heights
Battle of White Plains
Battle of Fort Washington
Battle of Trenton
Battle of Princeton
Battle Ticonderoga 1777
Battle of Hubbardton
Battle of Bennington
Battle of Brandywine Creek
Battle of Freeman's Farm
Battle of Paoli
Battle of Germantown
Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Monmouth
Battle of Camden
Battle of King's Mountain
Battle of Cowpens
Battle of Guilford Courthouse
Battle of Yorktown
Second Mahratta War
Battle of Assaye
Peninsular War
Battle of Vimeiro
Battle of Corunna
Battle of Douro
Battle of Talavera
Battle of Busaco
Battle of Barossa
Fuentes de Oñoro
Battle of Albuera
Battle of Salamanca
Battle of Vitoria
Napoleonic Wars
Battle of Cape St Vincent
Battle of the Nile
Battle of Copenhagen
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Quatre Bras
Battle of Waterloo
Waterloo Allied order
Waterloo casualties
Waterloo French order
Waterloo - Hougoumont
Waterloo - La Haye Sante
Waterloo - Scots Greys
Waterloo - uniform
First Afghan War
Battle of Ghuznee
Kabul and Gandamak
Siege of Jellalabad
Battle of Kabul 1842
First Sikh War
Battle of Moodkee
Battle of Ferozeshah
Battle of Aliwal
Battle of Sobraon
Second Sikh War
Battle of Ramnagar
Battle of Chillianwallah
Battle of Goojerat
Crimean War
Battle of the Alma
Battle of Balaclava
Battle of Inkerman
Siege of Sevastopol
Second Afghan War
Battle of Ali Masjid
Battle of Peiwar Kotal
Battle of Futtehabad
Battle of Charasiab
Battle of Kabul 1879
Battle of Ahmed Khel
Battle of Maiwand
Battle of Khandahar
Zulu War
Battle of Isandlwana
Battle of Rorke's Drift
Battle of Khambula
Battle of Gingindlovu
Battle of Ulundi
First Boer War
Battle of Laing's Nek
Battle of Majuba Hill
Egypt and Sudan
Battle of Tel-El-Kebir 1882
Battle of El Teb
Battle of Tamai
Battle of Abu Klea
Great Boer War
Battle of Talana Hill
Battle of Elandslaagte
Battle of Ladysmith
Battles of Belmont and Graspan
Battle of Modder River
Battle of Stormberg
Battle of Magersfontein
Battle of Colenso
Battle of Spion Kop
Battles of Val Krantz & Pieters
Battle of Paardeburg
Siege of Mafeking
Siege of Kimberley
Siege of Ladysmith
The War of Austrian Accession
The War of the Austrian Succession, known in America as King George’s War.
In 1740 the deaths of two European monarchs plunged the continent into war. Frederick William I, the “sergeant major” King of Prussia, died on 31st May 1740. On his death the Prussian throne passed to his ruthlessly ambitious son, Frederick. With the crown, Frederick inherited the most advanced army in Europe supported by a state bureaucracy of unrivalled efficiency, institutions his father had spent a lifetime perfecting. The opportunity for Frederick, soon to be known as “The Great”, to use these instruments arose with the second death in that year.
Charles VI, Emperor of Austria, died on 19th October 1740, leaving his imperial throne to his daughter Maria Theresa. Charles feared that the powerful states of Europe would upon his death seize chunks of the empire, expecting that his daughter would be unable to defend her inheritance. He had spent the last years of his life devising the Pragmatic Sanction of Prague, a convention that guaranteed the integrity of Maria Theresa’s imperial dominions, and persuading the monarchs of Europe to subscribe to it.
On the death of Charles VI, Frederick tore up Prussia’s commitment to the Pragmatic Sanction and seized Silesia, marching his troops into the capital, Breslau, and annexing the rich Austrian province to Prussia.
If Frederick thought Maria Theresa would acquiesce in this outrage, he was mistaken. She declared war on Prussia and invaded Silesia, precipitating the wars that would rage for a quarter of a century. The conflict did not finally end until the Treaty of Paris in 1764 confirmed Prussia’s ownership of Silesia.
The first period of fighting from 1740 to 1748 was known as the “War of the Austrian Succession” or in England as “King George’s War”. Austria and Prussia fought in Silesia and Bohemia while French armies invaded Bavaria. In 1742 the French threatened Flanders, a region dominated by Austria and the Dutch Republic. A Pragmatic Army named from Charles VI’s Sanctions assembled to counter the French invasion, with troops from Austria and various German states including Hanover.
George II, King of England and Elector of Hanover, resolved to send English troops to join the Pragmatic Allies. Ostensibly the army was to fight for Maria Theresa, but George’s concern was that the French intended to pass through the Low Countries and invade his beloved Hanover.
The English force was dispatched to Flanders in mid-1742 and remained there until the end of the war in 1748, fighting the four battles of Dettingen, Fontenoy, Rocoux and Lauffeldt. There was one major interlude from late 1745 to 1746, when Prince Charles, the Young Pretender, landed in Scotland and invaded England with a highland army. This adventure, encouraged and resourced by France, brought the Hanoverian Crown to the brink of disaster and was retrieved only when the Flanders regiments returned to Britain and defeated the highlanders at Culloden Moor.
In 1742, England had not fought a European war since the time of the Duke of Marlborough. In the intervening twenty years of peace, the army had been neglected by governments reluctant to spend money on the armed services.
The first British commander in chief was John Dalrymple, Earl of Stair. He was hampered by the refusal of the Dutch, Austrian and British commanders to co-operate in a plan of campaign. An additional embarrassment was George II’s fear of provoking the French to outright war.
In 1743 the Pragmatic Army marched South to the Frankfurt region of Germany. There it was joined by George II and the battle of Dettingen was fought against the French Army of the Duc de Noailles.
The Pragmatic Army spent 1744 in idleness while the French Army under Marshal Maurice de Saxe overran areas of Flanders.
In early 1745 the young Duke of Cumberland, second and favourite son of George II, became commander in chief of the Pragmatic Army in time to march to the relief of the City of Tournai, under siege by Marshal Saxe in the South West of Flanders. This led to the Battle of Fontenoy.
In September 1745 Britain was rocked by the Jacobite invasion from Scotland led by Prince Charles. Most of the British troops were withdrawn to combat the rebellion.
Only in 1747 did the British troops return in numbers to the Flanders War. The pattern continued of the French under Saxe inexorably overrunning the province. The battles of Roucoux and Lauffeldt were fought and in 1748 peace came, although only as an interlude before the serious bludgeoning of the Seven Years War began in 1755.
Britain used the return of Louisburg, captured by the New England colonists, as the bargaining counter to persuade the French to give up their conquests