The Federated States of Micronesia forms (with Palau) the archipelago of the
Caroline Islands, and lies about 800 kilometers (497 miles) east of the
Philippines. The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) consists of 607 islands
and includes (from west to east) the states of Yap, Chuuk (formerly Truk),
Pohnpei (formerly Ponape), and Kosrae. Micronesia covers about 702 square
kilometers of land (271 square miles), has a coastline of 6,112 kilometers
(3,798 miles) and is scattered over more than 2.7 million square kilometers (1
million square miles) of the ocean. Micronesia's largest island cluster is
Pohnpei (163 islands), with an area of 344 square kilometers (133 square miles),
while the smallest cluster is Kosrae (5 islands), spanning 110 square kilometers
(42.5 square miles). The islands include a variety of terrains, ranging from
mountainous islands to low, coral atolls and volcanic outcrops.
The population of Micronesia was estimated at 134,597 in July 2001, up 18
percent from 114,000 in 1998. The current annual population growth rate is 3.28
percent, which will result in a population of 176,815 by 2010. The birth rate is
27.09 per 1,000 population, with a fertility rate of 3.83 children per woman.
The death rate is 5.95 per 1,000 population. The immigration rate is
11.65 migrants per 1,000 population. The infant mortality rate in July 2000 was
33.48 per 1,000 births (the U.S. rate was 7 per 1,000).
There are 9 ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups, spread across the
islands. In 1994, around 53,319 people lived in Chuuk; 33,692 in Pohnpei; 11,178
in Yap; and 7,317 in Kosrae. The highest population density was estimated in
Chuuk island with 419.8 people per square kilometer (1,087 per square mile) in
Industry (including mining, manufacturing, utilities, and construction)
provided 4 percent of GDP in 1996, and engaged 10 percent of the total labor
force in 1994. The major industrial productions are construction, fish
processing, and craft items from shells, wood, and pearls. There is little
manufacturing, other than garment production (in Yap) and the manufacture of
buttons using troche shells.