Wednesday, November 23, 2011

The Relation between Hindus and Muslims (contd-1)

It was nottill the third quarter of ninetenth century that the Muslims appreciated the value of English education and seriously took to it. As a result, in the race for progress, the Muslims were handicapped by a time-lag of about fifty years. This is evident from the writings of W.S. Blunt, a liberal minded Englishman who openly protested against the British polocy in Egypt.
Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840–1922) was a British poet and writer. He was born in Sussex, and served in the Diplomatic Service from 1858 to 1869. He married Lady Anne Noel and together they travelled extensively in the Middle East and India.
Blunt opposed British imperialism, and his championship of Irish causes led to his imprisonment in 1888.
His own books, Secret History of the English and the Future of Islam endeared him to the whole Muslim World, and he found a warm welcome awaiting in India, when he visited this country in 1883. He mixed freely and intimately with the Muslim leaders of all shades of opinion, and his observations on Muslim politics should, therefore, command both  respect and confidence.
When Mr. Blunt arrived in Tuticorin, the local Muslims complained "of being subject to annoyance from the Hindus."
In Calcutta Maulavi Sayid Amir Hussain, deputy magistrate and a  friend of Amir Ali, told him that " the Bengali Mohammedans were an oppressed community".
Ilbert Bill;
The Ilbert Bill was a bill introduced in 1883 for British India by Viceroy Ripon that proposed an amendment for existing laws in the country at the time to allow Indian judges and magistrates the jurisdiction to try British offenders in criminal cases at the District level, something that was disallowed at the time. It was named after Courtenay Ilbert, the recently-appointed legal adviser to the Council of India, who had proposed it as a compromise between two previously suggested bills. However, the introduction of the bill led to intense opposition in Britain and from British settlers in India that ultimately played on racial tensions before it was enacted in 1884 in a severely compromised state. The bitter controversy deepened antagonism between the British and Indians and was a prelude to the formation of the Indian National Congress the following year
The Muslims and Hindus had different opinions on Ilbert Bill. The difference between the two communities became accentuated  in connection with the legislation for local self-government on elective basis.It is on this occasion that for the first time a demand was made for separate representation of the Mohammadans,.It seems, however, that as in in later days, the ball was set rolling by the English officials More than thirty years ago, the English or official view emphasized the communal difference in political matters in connection with the creation of Legislative Council. Lord Ellenborough suggested the creation of two separate legislatures for the two communities. In those early days a vigorous protest against this was made by a Hindu Politician, and no Muslim is known to have come forward to support the British or official view.But Muhammad Yusuf changed the situation. 
In the mean time Pan-Islamic sentiments had strong influence on India Muslims.
Pan-Islamism (Arabic: الوحدة الإسل poitical movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state — often a Caliphate. As a form of religious nationalism, Pan-Islamism differentiates itself from other pan-nationalistic ideologies, for example Pan-Arabism, by excluding culture and ethnicity as primary factors towards unification
The Hunter Commission, demanding entirely separate arrangements for the education of the Hindus and Muslim boys, insisting upon Urdu as a medium of instruction even in a Province like Bengal where 99 pc of the Muslims were ignorant of that language and their spoken language, Bengali,lways been the medium of instruction. 
Hunter Commission officially known as the Indian Education Commission, 1882, was the first education commission in the history of modern India. Appointed by the Government of India, it was to review in depth, the state of education in India since wood's education despatch of 1854, and to recommend necessary measures for further progress. The other consideration, which prompted the Government to launch this enquiry, was the agitation of the missionaries, particularly in England, accusing lapses of the Government in implementing the provisions of the Despatch of 1854. Because of the great importance, which the Government attached to primary education, higher education was excluded from the Commission's purview and instead was directed to concentrate chiefly on primary education.