Saturday, November 19, 2011

Relation between the Hindus and Muslims

In most of the the relation between Hindus and Muslims were zamindars and tenants before the British rule.After the advent of the British, the hostile attitude of the Musilms towards the British and their strong aversion to merely secular education kept them severely aloof from English education imparted in schools and colleges. The foundation of Hindu College in 1817 gave a great impetus to the English education in Hindus, but the Muslims made very little progress in it during the next fifty years. The comparative position of the Hindus and Muslims in English education will be evident from the following figures:
In 1865, 9 Hindus and no Muslims passed the M.A. examination,
              41 Hindus and 1 Muhammadan passed the B.A. examination,
               17 students, all Hindus , passed the Law Examination.
               All the Medical graduates were also Hindus.
In 1867,   88 Hindus and not a single Muhammadans passed the M.a. examination and B.A. examinations.
The disparity in progress widened the gulf between Hindus and Muslims. For more knowledge in English the Hindus were given high positions in British administration and their political ideas were also widened.
A liberal Muslim Leader Mr. M.R. Sayani in his presidential address in the 12th session in 1896 held in Calcutta, admirably delineates the sentiments of the Muslims which powerfully influenced them.
Before the advent of the British in India, Mussalmans were the rulers of the country. The Mussalmans had, therefore, all the advantages appertaining to the ruling class.he court language was their own.
The learning of an entirely unknown foreign language, of course, required hard application and industry. The Hindus were accustomed to this, as even under the Mussalmans rule they had practically to master a foreign tongue, and so easily took to the new education. The result was that so far as education was concerned, the Mussalmans who  were once superior to the Hindus now actually became their inferiors. Of course, they grumbled and groaned, but the irony of fate was inexorable.
Mussalmans were gradually ousted from their lands, offices, and other worldly advantages of their former masters. they were soon reduced to a utter poverty. This was clearly manifested in the Wahabi Movement mentioned earlier. The Musalmans did not participated so far in any political organisation in general including Cngress.There was hardly any muslim in the committees of Landholders Society, British India Society, and the British Indian Association. But formed an organisation of their own on 31st January 1856, namely "Mohammedan Association". The British Indian Association welcomed the the organisation. When the Hindu Mela and the National Society were started by the Hindus on communal basis, the Muslim Leader, Nawab Ali Amir Khan, organised the " National Mommedan Association" in Calcutta with a view to  uniting all classes of Muhammadans so that they might work together for the common good. In 1863 Abdul Latif founded the "Mohammedan Literary Society", its object being to interest its memberin present day politics and modern thought and leaning.
The first Muslim uprising began with the Muslim Sultan, Tipu Sultan in 1766, whose famous armed resistance of Mysore, using bamboo Rockets, was the catalyst for the demise of the British from India and earned him the title Father of the Indian Rocket. In fact, the battle against the British in Mysore, 1766 seems to be at the pinnacle of unrest in the colonised lands of all the European colonisers.

The first organized expressions began with Muslim scholars and reformers like Syed Ahmed Khan, Syed Ameer Ali and the Aga Khan who had an influential major hand in the Anti-British Resistance movements during the "Indian Revolution".
Expression of Muslim separatism and nationhood emerged from modern Islam's pre-eminent poet and philosopher, Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal and political activists like Choudhary Rahmat Ali
Abdul Latif (1828–1893) or Nawab Abdul Latif (Bengali: নবাব আবদুল লতীফ) was a nineteenth century educator and social worker in Bengal, later Bangladesh. His title, Nawab was awarded by the British in 1880. Abdul Lateef was one of the first Muslims in nineteenth century India to embrace the idea of modernization. He was a professor at Calcutta Madrasah. His achievements include working to turn Hindu College into Presidency College and thus open it for non-Hindus as well. He also established numerous educational institutes, including Rajshahi Madrasah
1821 - 1846 Nawab Amir 'Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Malerkotla, only son of Nawab Muhammad Wazir Khan, Nawab of Malerkotla, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 4th September 1821. Served in person during the First Afghan War 1839-1942. Granted a salute of 9-guns with the personal style of His Highness 1840. He d. at Fort Kotla, 8th April 1846 (bur. there at the Shahi Muqbara), having had issue, one son: