Wednesday, September 7, 2011

Press and Literature (contd-2)

In Madras, the earliest paper, the Weekly Madras Courier, was stated in 1785, and was followed by two others in 1795. In Bombay, the first paper, Bombay Herald, appered in 1789, followed by two others, The editors of these incurred official wrathand pre-censorship was imposed on some of them. Because they sometimes criticised the action of the East Indias Company along with the other persons of England.
Bengali periodicals did not appear before 1818, but a large number followed in quick succession.One of them was edited by Raja Rammohan Roy, and another was started be him along with Dwarakanath Tagore and some other distinguished, liberal minded citizens of Calcutta.The other papers from different parts of India started within first half of 19th century. A leading news paper edited by an Indian was the Hindoo Patriot, started in 1853 and by Harish Chandra Mukherjee . Seldom has a paper redeemed its pledge more nobly than did the Hindoo Patriot.Some of the  English papers, those were critical about the Government and the vernacular press caused them alarm. Against the will of the liberal Englishmen and the views of the educated Indians, a  rigorous press ordinance dated 14 March 1823 was enforced by the Governor-General in Council. The Press Ordinance was submitted on 15th March, 1823 and two days later five distinguished citizens of Calcutta, led by Raja Rammohan Roy, submitted a memorial to the Supreme Court for hearing objections against it. It was a remarkable document in the history of British India. An English lady, Miss Collet, has referred to this memorial as the :"Aneopagitica of  Indian history"
Though the judge of the Supreme court dismissed the memorial, it created a sensation among the saner
section of the English people.
Rammohan Roy and five leading citizen of Calcutta  created a landmark in the history of Freedom Struggle of India against the Press ordinance of 1823.