Monday, May 9, 2011

Economic Condition of Bengal after British Victory (contd-1)

In place of the Indian traders and brokers engaged in the affairs of British, the first British Merchant Chambers of Commerce was established in 1770. This was the main instrument of exploitation of India people by the British colonialism.These organisations were in charge of export and import, collection of revenues, to send to England the valuable stolen materials of India and similar  other activities.As a result, the mighty traders and investors went to the villages being driven away from cities. The exploitations of the artisans also increased by that time.
The British East India Company introduced a rule for the Indian weavers depriving them from manufacturing clothes to facilitate the work of the British personals. To prevent them from selling their prepared materials to other places, some entry were posted in front of their gate.The weavers, in this way, lost their residual freedom. This time the weavers went to the villages leaving their homes to increase the number  of the share-croppers. In 1773 and 1786 weavers revolution had occured in Santipur.In 1787 the weavers of Dacca, and in 1789 the weavers of Sonargna complained for their betrayal, torture, and arrest. The similar complains were also received from the salt manufacturers.
The farmers of Bengal were faced with severe economic setback. Clive did not extend his hand to the collection of revenue or upon the body that controlled the system.On the other hand Hastings introduced British system in Revenue collection. Hastings, on the assumption that the right of the ex-ruler of Bengal had now rested on the hands of British, tried to implement new system of exploitation over the farmers of the locality which  had looked down upon by Francis. In the opinion of Francis  The landed property of India belonged to local land lords. In his language they were termed as the zaminder.Inspite of the opposition of Francis Hastings implemented the system of short term lease of the land for cultivation. The highest bidder would get the chance for cultivation of the land which reduced economic condition of the farmers. In comparison with 1765, the tax of the land of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa had increased doubly in the year 1790-1791. Following this rule the eighteenth century one third of the land of the country became covered with forest. The fertile land was converted to the land tigers.