· 2.1 Xia Dynasty (c. 2100 – c. 1600 BC) Bronze age, 1st king
2.2 Shang Dynasty (c. 1700–1046 BC) Written documents available, 31 kings, trade relation proper China.
· Yin dyn. 1350 bc, golden age,
2.3 Zhou Dynasty (1046–256 BC) Longest lasting dyn, 1066-256 bc,
se mi-feudal, Confucianism,Taoism, Legalism, Mohism
· 2.5 Warring States Period (476–221 BC) 1st emperor (Qin Shi Huang)
3.1 Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC) Centralised govt., beginning of Great wall of China, written
· Language,measurement, currency, viable trading system.
· 3.2.1 Western Han golden age, long period of stability, Confucianism official, art , culture, science
· 3.2.2 Xin Dynasty flood in Yellow river, peasants displaced, wang mang murdered by peasants
· 3.2.3 Eastern Han Dev. Of Science and technology, Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184 ad, divided in 3
· 3.3 Wei and Jin Period (AD 265–420) decentralized states, Jin re-unified 3 kingdoms in 280
· 3.4 Wu Hu Period (AD 304–439) non-han dyn., hans moved to Yangtze River.
· 3.5 Southern and Northern Dynasties (AD 420–589) Budhism and Taoism entered
· 3.6 Sui Dynasty (AD 589–618) govt 3 department with 6 ministers, coinage,improved defence, exp Great Wall, official
Official support for Budhism.
· 3.7 Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907) Golden age of Chinese civilization, in art, literature and poetry,and technology,
· Budhism spread for common people, chang’an (modern Xi’an) largest city of the time.
Silk road Open, maritime trade routes, port city Guangzhou, trade with distant countries.
· 3.8 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (AD 907–960) decentralized states of 5 dy and 10 kingdoms
· 3.9 Song, Liao, Jin, and Western Xia Dynasties (AD 960–1234) economic prosperity, extended China, dev. Science and technology.
· 3.10 Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368) Kublai Khan established Yuan Dyn.ruled whole of China, capital-Beijing European entr
Macropolo, china having 120 million people. After Mongol invasion it came to 60
· Million, epidemic of plague. Black death 25 million
· 3.11 Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644) Urbanisation , labour growth, last construction of Great wall, Battle of Nanking, slavery China abolished in 1910., The Xinhai Revolution in 1911 over throw Qing’s Rul3.3.12 Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911
Emergence Of Modern China
By the nineteenth century, China was experiencing growing internal pressures of economic origin. By the start of the century, there were over 300 million Chinese, but there was no industry or trade of sufficient scope to absorb the surplus labor. Moreover, the scarcity of land led to widespread rural discontent and a breakdown in law and order. The weakening through corruption of the bureaucratic and military systems and mounting urban pauperism also contributed to these disturbances. Localized revolts erupted in various parts of the empire in the early nineteenth century. Secret societies, such as the White Lotus sect () in the north and the Triad Society () in the south, gained ground, combining anti-Manchu subversion with banditry.
The Western Powers Arrive
As elsewhere in Asia, in China the Portuguese were the pioneers, establishing a foothold at Macao ( or Aomen in pinyin), from which they monopolized foreign trade at the Chinese port of Guangzhou ( or Canton). Soon the Spanish arrived, followed by the British and the French.
Trade between China and the West was carried on in the guise of tribute: foreigners were obliged to follow the elaborate, centuries-old ritual imposed on envoys from China's tributary states. There was no conception at the imperial court that the Europeans would expect or deserve to be treated as cultural or political equals. The sole exception was Russia, the most powerful inland neighbor.