Sunday, December 11, 2011

Swadeshi Movement (1905- 1911)

The decision of the Partition of Bengal was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. The partition took effect on 16 October 1905. Due to the high level of political unrest generated by the partition, the eastern and western parts of Bengal were never united because of Muslim pressure.

The province of Bengal had an area of 189,000 miles2 and a population of over 80 million. Eastern Bengal was almost isolated from the western part by geography and poor communications. In 1836, the upper provinces were placed under a lieutenant governor, and in 1854 the Governor-General-In-Council was relieved of the direct administration of Bengal. In 1874 Assam, including Sylhet, was severed from Bengal to form a Chief-Commissionership, and the Lushai Hills were added to it in 1898. It was hard to manage a province as large as Bengal with this large population.
Historical Background;
At the dawn of the 20th century the Indian situation seemed to gloomy on various reasons. 
1. The revolt of 1857, 2. Indigo agitation, 3. Hindu Mela, 4. Development of a Nationalist literature, 5. Independence of the Indian Press, 6. Political propaganda of Surendranath Banerjee and others, 7. Ilbert Bill agitation, 8. Contempt Case of Surendranath Banerjee (1883), 9, Formation of Indian national Congress, 10. Continuous drain of Indian resources and destruction of Indian indigigenous Industry and Trade.
11. The Arya Samaj of Dayananda Saraswati and he the Theosophist movement, Ramkrishna- Vivekananda Movement awakened our ancient heritage and National feeling which gained momentum under the leadership of Bal Gangadhar Tilak by the introduction of Ganapati and Sivaji festival.The arrest of Tilak in Bombay on 27 July , 1897, caused a All India basis strike.
The policy of Congress of application and appeal came under a challenge of Cambridge-educated Aurobindo Ghoshe in his serial articles "New lamps for old" and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's novel Anandamath opened a new avenues for freedom movement.Aurobindo Ghoshe tried to organise a secret society in Bengal through the agency of Jatindranath Banerjee of Gaekwad's army. The result was the foundation of a secret society in Calcutta (1901-02) by Jatin Banerjee with a handful of associates like Abinash Bhattacharya, Barin Ghosh, Bhupen Dutta and others.. This organisation functioned under the outward cover of a physical-culture training centre . Many kindred bodies were also springing up in Bengal about the same time.